THE DUAL MANDATE IN BRITISH TROPICAL AFRICA PDF

President of the Regional Council For example, an elected official cannot be mayor and President of the Regional Council. However, all other local mandates are cumulative. A mayor can also be a general councillor and a president of a Regional Council can also be deputy-mayor of a city. However, he may retain any local mandate he or she holds. A cabinet minister can exercise a maximum of two local mandates in addition to his or her government function. For example, the Prime Minister, a Minister or Secretary of State can be mayor , or President of a general, regional or intercommunal council or sit in one of these assemblies.

Author:Grozragore Tezragore
Country:Belarus
Language:English (Spanish)
Genre:History
Published (Last):10 September 2005
Pages:350
PDF File Size:14.11 Mb
ePub File Size:4.65 Mb
ISBN:771-2-49519-508-3
Downloads:94196
Price:Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader:Shaktigore



President of the Regional Council For example, an elected official cannot be mayor and President of the Regional Council. However, all other local mandates are cumulative. A mayor can also be a general councillor and a president of a Regional Council can also be deputy-mayor of a city. However, he may retain any local mandate he or she holds. A cabinet minister can exercise a maximum of two local mandates in addition to his or her government function. For example, the Prime Minister, a Minister or Secretary of State can be mayor , or President of a general, regional or intercommunal council or sit in one of these assemblies.

Currently, over two-thirds of the members of the French government are engaged in one or two more local mandates. Purpose and frequency[ edit ] The neutrality of this section is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. March Learn how and when to remove this template message The rationales for holding multiple offices are varied.

Holding a seat in the Senate, National Assembly, or European Parliament gives local mayors a valuable method of tapping funds to develop their home cities and regions.

These advantages have made politicians very wary of reducing the practice of the cumul with legislation despite other moves to end perceptions of favoritism and corruption among politicians. But there are also many cases of "cumul" before this period, for example, the writer Alexis de Tocqueville was a member from to In he was appointed Foreign Affairs minister, and at the same time he was elected President of the General Council of Manche from to councillor from to There are several reasons for this phenomenon, and one of them is that France has a long tradition of centralization, compared to countries such as Germany, Italy, and Spain.

The local mandates in France are less important than in other countries, and therefore politicians have more time to devote to a parliamentary mandate. The cumul is a widespread practice and has grown much more prevalent in modern France. In , 36 percent of deputies in the National Assembly held an additional office. Jacques Chirac served as Mayor of Paris between and Recent and current status of cumul in the French government[ edit ] Lionel Jospin Prime Minister from to imposed on his government ministers an unwritten rule of having no local office.

For example, Catherine Trautmann stepped down as Mayor of Strasbourg while remaining a member of the city council to become Minister of Culture ; conversely, Martine Aubry stepped down from the Ministry of Labour when elected Mayor of Lille in Before the abolition of the two municipal councils in the territory in , it was common for politicians to serve concurrently at all three levels.

Ireland[ edit ] The instability caused by the close result of the general election was exacerbated by the number of government TDs who also served as MEPs and for whom the opposition refused pairing when they were abroad.

In , cabinet ministers and junior ministers were prohibited from serving as local councillors. County councillors were allowed to sit on a town council, [33] and many did so. The Act provided that a candidate elected simultaneously to a forbidden combination of local councils has three days to choose which seat to take up, with the other or others then being considered vacant.

Spain[ edit ] Per the Spanish Constitution , legislators in the regional assemblies of the Autonomous Communities are barred from being elected to a seat in the Congress of Deputies , the lower house of the Cortes Generales. More precisely, regional legislators can run for the seat, but if elected they must choose between the regional and national parliaments.

Nevertheless, members of lower tiers of the Spanish decentralized structure, such as provincial councillors or members of local councils, including mayors, can and have held seats in the Congress of Deputies. The rule barring regional legislators does not apply to the upper house of the Cortes, the Senate : in fact, regional legislatures are entitled to appoint a varying number of members from their ranks to the Senate, according to the population of the region.

Currently, the Autonomous Communities appoint 56 Senators, the other being directly elected in general elections. United Kingdom[ edit ] At the EU level, prior to the European Parliament elections , there were a small number of members of the European Parliament who were also members of the House of Lords.

There have been members of the House of Commons also holding seats in the devolved bodies in Scotland , Wales and Northern Ireland. Sadiq Khan , elected as the Labour mayor in the election , resigned his seat as MP for Tooting soon after his election to the mayoralty.

At a lower level, it is common for people to hold seats on both a district council and a county council. Several MPs have also retained their council seats, most often until the expiration of their terms; Mike Hancock simultaneously held a council seat and a seat in Parliament between his election to Parliament in and his defeat in the local elections in I, Sec.

II, Sec. However, the Constitution places no restrictions that would prevent state or local office holders from simultaneously holding office in any branch of the federal government. Historically, the U. Following the establishment of the original Continental Congress and later Confederation Congress , the states possessed absolute discretion in regards to how delegates were chosen to serve, and it became common for state legislatures to appoint members from within their own ranks to Congress.

At the time, this was a largely uncontroversial practise since it was widely assumed that the Congress would have relatively little to do especially in peacetime and that most of the consequential decision-making would take place at the state and local levels. A ban on dual mandates would therefore have been widely seen as unnecessary and unwelcome as it would have effectively barred Congressional delegates from what were perceived to be more important political posts, thus making election to the national Congress already seen as a considerable burden due to the difficulties of eighteenth century travel quite undesirable.

During the convention that established the present U. Barring state and local officials from federal office was not seriously debated. For the first few decades after the First United States Congress convened in , Congress met infrequently and some states endeavored to accommodate dual mandates by holding their legislative sessions at times that would not conflict with Congressional sessions.

Eventually, as the federal government grew in importance, Congress came to be seen as a source of great power. This created the potential for conflicts of interest and made it increasingly difficult to justify the holding of mandates at different levels of government to voters. In a closely related development, Congress began meeting more frequently than originally intended, which eventually made it impractical in most states for one person to serve simultaneously in the state and federal governments.

In time, the vast majority of states banned dual state and federal mandates. Today, the practice is forbidden by many state constitutions of many U. Unlike many federations, U. For example, in the four U. Bush in Clinton and Bush were elected president , while in sitting governor Mike Pence was elected vice president. Senate despite not being legally required to do so, and served as a U. Representative when he was first elected governor.

Also typically permitted is for one person to seek multiple offices at the same level of government in the same election, although attempting to simultaneously seek multiple offices in the same branch of government e. Representative seeking re-election to the House and election to the U. Senate is severely frowned on and prohibited in many states the constitutionality of these prohibitions is uncertain.

Recent examples include the and presidential elections where Senator Joe Lieberman and Representative Paul Ryan respectively sought re-election and election to the vice presidency - neither was elected vice president, but both were re-elected to the offices in which they were the incumbents.

Florida[ edit ] In April , Governor of Florida Bob Graham received legislation that passed unanimously in both houses of the Florida Legislature that would forbid public officials from receiving retirement pay and regular pay simultaneously for the same position. At the time that the legislation first passed, there were some twenty elected officials who served in the New Jersey Legislature and another elected office, including Assemblyman Bill Pascrell , who was also mayor of Paterson, New Jersey ; State Senator Ronald Rice , who also served on the Newark City Council; and Assemblyman John E.

Rooney , who was also mayor of Northvale. These officials protested the proposed ban as interfering with the will of voters to elect officials as they see fit. Bryant the "king of double dipping" because he was collecting salaries from as many as four public jobs he held simultaneously.

TAGHVIM 94 PDF

The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa

In his most important work on British imperialism, The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa , Lugard craftily articulated the basis for European imperial design in Africa and the dynamics of the colonial administrative system of indirect rule. It was a concept in which existing African traditional political institutions were preserved and incorporated into the colonial administrative system for local governance. Under this system, local administrative powers resided in the native authority made up of traditional rulers or chiefs with jurisdiction over a native treasury and native courts. Lugard believed that, at the grassroots, traditional authority would constitute an effective instrument in enforcing colonial policies, administrating justice in local disputes, maintaining law and order, and collecting taxes.

ESAB HELIARC 252 PDF

The dual mandate in British tropical Africa

.

COPTIC SYNAXARIUM PDF

Dual Mandate, Africa

.

Related Articles