ALARIA ALATA PDF

Alariosis is a reemerging zoonotic disease caused by infection with larval stages of trematodes of the genus Alaria. The trematodes are found in wildlife that inhabit wetlands, and these animals may serve as possible reservoirs for these organisms that cause human infection 1. The main sources for human infection are suids and frogs 1. In humans, the clinical features of alariosis caused by infections with the North American species of Alaria vary from mild and asymptomatic to moderate with respiratory or cutaneous signs 2 or neuroretinitis 3 , to severe-to-lethal anaphylactic shock caused by larva migrans 4 , 5. The genus Alaria has 7 species; only A. However, the role of other paratenic hosts is poorly known.

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Alariosis is a reemerging zoonotic disease caused by infection with larval stages of trematodes of the genus Alaria. The trematodes are found in wildlife that inhabit wetlands, and these animals may serve as possible reservoirs for these organisms that cause human infection 1. The main sources for human infection are suids and frogs 1.

In humans, the clinical features of alariosis caused by infections with the North American species of Alaria vary from mild and asymptomatic to moderate with respiratory or cutaneous signs 2 or neuroretinitis 3 , to severe-to-lethal anaphylactic shock caused by larva migrans 4 , 5.

The genus Alaria has 7 species; only A. However, the role of other paratenic hosts is poorly known. Among these, mustelids are reported to harbor mesocercariae of A. The pathogenic effect of A. Except for 2 experimental studies that described gross lesions produced by A. Our report provides a detailed description of the lesions, shown by microscopy, which suggests the pathogenic mechanisms. The corpse was deep-frozen and analyzed after 3 months in the laboratory.

During necropsy, multiple, well-defined, whitish nodules were observed in most muscular and subcutaneous tissues Figure, panel A , with no evident preferential localization. We collected samples from these tissues for artificial digestion 9 , 10 and histologic examination, using the routine paraffin-embedding protocol and the following staining methods: hematoxylin-eosin, Masson trichrome, and Gordon and Sweet.

By microscopy, we observed that morphologic features of these larvae were consistent with A. Histopathologic examination confirmed the presence of parasitic forms in muscle sections Figure, panel C. The mesocercariae were located in the connective fibrous tissue of the perimysium or between the muscle fibers. The typical structure of muscle fibers was altered around the larvae, with inflammatory cell reactions, represented mainly by lymphocytes, macrophages, and plasma cells Figure, panel D.

In other areas, the inflammatory reaction around the parasite was minimal or absent Figure, panel E. In certain histologic sections, the damaged muscular tissue was replaced by granulation tissue in various stages of development Figure, panel F.

The maturity of the granulation tissue differed substantially, depending on the muscular areas examined. Some lesions were found in adult connective tissue, formed by mature collagen scar fibers type I collagen and few inflammatory cells, whereas other lesions had reticulin fibers type III collagen with numerous inflammatory cells. The lesions of the subcutaneous connective tissue consisted of an inflammatory reaction panniculitis.

The inflammation was characterized by a low number of mononuclear leukocytes and fibrinous exudate and fibroplasia. The polyphasic nature of muscle and subcutaneous lesions produced by A. This view is sustained by the presence of mononuclear cells that it infiltrates and by the appearance of the granulomatous tissue in various stages of maturation, which leads to muscle and subcutaneous fibroplasia.

The reparatory nature of the lesions suggests that the inflammation is probably the result of direct tissue damage rather than an immune reaction targeted toward the parasitic antigens. This assumption could explain the local absence of inflammatory reaction around the parasites. The lack of inflammation was previously observed also with A.

The structure of all mesocercariae observed by microscopy suggested that they were alive and active before the mink carcass was frozen. Although data on the pathologic changes caused by Alaria spp. The reparatory nature of the lesions suggests that the inflammation is the result of direct tissue damage rather than an immune reaction targeted toward the parasitic antigens.

Biology of Alaria spp. Parasitol Res. Respiratory symptoms and subcutaneous granuloma caused by mesocercariae: a case report. Am J Trop Med Hyg. Two cases of intraocular infection with Alaria mesocercaria Trematoda. Am J Ophthalmol. Can Med Assoc J. Trematodes of animals and man; essentials of trematodology, vol. Jerusalem Israel : Program for Scientific Translations; Study on the European mink Mustela lutreola helminthocenoses in connection with the American mink M.

Monatsh Veterinarmed. International Commission on Trichinellosis: recommendations on methods for the control of Trichinella in domestic and wild animals intended for human consumption.

Vet Parasitol.

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SANITAIRE : attention à l'Alaria alata

Life Cycle[ edit ] Species of Alaria have complex indirect life cycles. There are two intermediate hosts involved, but there can also be paretic hosts, such as snakes, mice, birds, and humans. The sporocysts then produce cercariae. The cercariae then leave the snail and infect the tadpole via penetration where a non-reproductive form is developed, which is known as mesocercariae.

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Alaria alata ist ein parasitisch lebender Saugwurm. Endwirte sind vor allem Hundeartige, seltener auch Katzen, bei denen er im Dunndarm parasitiert. Seine Ruheform, die Metazerkarie, wird auch als Dunker-Muskelegel bezeichnet. Als Transportwirte fur diese Larve dienen viele landlebende Wirbeltiere einschlielich des Menschen, wobei auch eine Ubertragung zwischen Transportwirten erfolgen kann paratenischer Wirtswechsel. Der Befall mit dem Dunker-Muskelegel ist damit als Zoonose einzustufen. Die Metazerkarien besiedeln das Muskelgewebe und angrenzende Fett- und Bindegewebe des Zwischenwirts.

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