So you undertook the labour of a long voyage from the East to the West to give light to the souls which were plunged in the darkness of the Egyptian error and intent 5 on the smoke of the blasphemy of Apollinarius; men, however, loved the darkness more than the light, since the eyes of their minds [were dimmed] by personal prejudice 6. They were not convinced; they were convicted of error and exposed. In this firm confidence in the might of your prayers mine Insignificance draws nigh to translate this book from Greek into Syriac; yet at least, the hope of the help of the living God being laid upon my tongue and confirmed in my thoughts, I therefore draw nigh to compose these eight chapters wherein the purpose of the book is made clear. Concerning the aim of the book. The aim, therefore, which has been proposed by the writer for this writing is this: that, because many, thoughtlessly [led astray] by the multitude of men and by the desire of possessions, have fallen without examination into the slough of prejudice through hatred and through attachment to persons, 7 from which. For great, to speak as in truth, was the schism which the devil introduced into the Christian body of the holy Church, such as, if [it were] possible, to deceive even the elect, and for this reason this remedy has necessarily been required [to be] a corrective and a healing of the sickness of their minds.
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Memnon closes the churches of Ephesus to the Nestorians , Conversations between Nestorius and a Acacius of Melitene, b Theodotus of Ancyra June 21 Cyril receives a letter from John of Antioch saying that he hopes to arrive in five or six days. Alexander of Apamea and Alexander of Hierapolis bring a message from him, that the Council should not wait for him if he is delayed on his journey.
June 22 Session I. Nestorius refuses to attend. IIreceived with acclamation xx Forty-three bishops are present, and Candidianus. Session II. Cyril presides. July 11 Session III. The minutes of Session I are read. Letters are sent to the Emperor and to the Church of Constantinople. July 16 Session IV. John of Antioch and his supporters are summoned, but refuse to attend. July 17 Session V. John sends a message refusing to have anything more to do with the Cyrillians.
Events in Constantinople in July. The Cyrillians cannot get their messages through to the Emperor owing to the activities of Candidianus and Nestorian agents. At last a beggar carries in a cane a letter from Cyril to the bishops and monks at Constantinople. August Count John, the imperial commissioner, arrives at Ephesus , He announces the deposition of Nestorius, Cyril, and Memnon, puts them all under arrest, and reports the fact to the Emperor.
The Cyrillians send two professedly Synodical letters to the Emperor. Count John tries to persuade them to confer with the Orientals. They will not, but the Orientals draw up as a basis of reconciliation, and send to the Emperor, a letter including the formulary which is later known as the Formulary of Reunion.
The Cyrillians ask to be allowed either to lay their case before the Emperor at Constantinople, or to go home. Their appeals stir up again the clergy of Constantinople and Dalmatius. September 11 Theodosius receives at Chalcedon eight delegates from each side , No agreement is reached, and Theodosius, despairing of a solution, dissolves the Council, sending Nestorius back to his monastery at Antioch, and ordering the consecration of a new bishop of Constantinople Maximian , The rival parties go home, the Orientals accusing Cyril of having won his case by bribery , Cyril arrives in triumph at Alexandria Maximian deposes Nestorian bishops; the Orientals renew their condemnation of Cyril, and treat Nestorius as unjustly deposed.
Cyril writes to Maximian, and sends the Emperor his Apologeticus ad Theodosium, which placates him. Simeon Stylites. These proposals are embodied in a letter from Acacius to Cyril, and taken to Alexandria by Aristolaus. No mention is made of abandoning Nestorius. Cyril replies that if the Orientals will accept the xxiii deposition of Nestorius there need be no trouble about the Anathematisms John and Acacius wish to agree on this basis Theodoret agrees on the doctrinal question, but dislikes the abandoning of Nestorius.
Andrew wavers and Alexander stands out. Autumn John and Acacius determine to go forward, ignoring the opposition of Alexander. They send Paul of Emesa as their envoy to Alexandria Meanwhile Cyril has been working hard to win over the Court at Constantinople.
The clergy and monks of Constantinople, including Maximian, Dalmatius, and Eutyches, have approached the Empress Pulcheria, while Cyril has heavily bribed her maids of honour, important eunuchs, and the Grand Chamberlain Chrysoretes. When pressed, Paul agrees to accept that deposition together with the deposition by Maximian of four Nestorianizing bishops.
December 18 Paul is received into communion at Alexandria. Christmas Day Paul is admitted to preach in Alexandria as an orthodox bishop. Cyril replies with a letter Ep. Theodoret, Andrew, and John of Germanicia acknowledge the xxiv orthodoxy of Cyril, but refuse to accept the deposition of Nestorius. Alexander and some Cilician bishops renounce both Alexandria and Antioch.
Death of Maximian. Proclus becomes bishop of Constantinople. April Alexander and seventeen other irreconcileables are deposed and banished to the Egyptian mines. Acacius of Melitene writes to Cyril of the general uneasiness, and receives letters composed to reassure him , , , , August Edict of Theodosius proscribing the writings of Nestorius and meetings of his followers Aristolaus is charged to carry it out.
Nestorius is banished to Arabia, but actually sent to Upper Egypt. Count Irenaeus is also sent into exile Nestorianism begins to spread in the East outside the Empire, e. John of Antioch writes to Proclus to say that all have now accepted the deposition of Nestorius, and that peace is restored. Proclus has the relics of Chrysostom restored to Constantinople. The Empress Eudocia returns from her pilgrimage to Palestine.
John of Antioch dies, and is succeeded by his nephew Domnus. The abbot Dalmatius dies, and is succeeded by Eutyches. Theodoret Eranistes seu Polymorphus. Theodoret replies and protests to Flavian and others, but Theodosius orders him to be confined within his own diocese. May Eutyches writes to Leo to say that Nestorianism is on the increase. June Leo replies cautiously, asking for more detailed information.
September Photius is consecrated bishop of Tyre in place of Irenaeus. November Synod of Constantinople. He immediately writes in protest to Leo, and Chrysaphius procures a letter from Theodosius to Leo on his behalf Eutyches also writes to Peter Chrysologus, archbishop of Ravenna.
Leo, receiving first the letters of Eutyches and Theodosius, writes to Theodosius and Flavian complaining that he has had no report from the latter, and asking for one.
Eutyches invites Dioscorus to take his part Chrysaphius promises his aid, and that of xxvi Eudocia. Dioscorus admits Eutyches to communion, and asks the Emperor for a General Council. March Theodosius summons a General Council to meet at Ephesus in August April Eutyches persuades Theodosius to have the Minutes of the Synod of Constantinople verified, and to order Flavian to produce a written statement of his faith The Minutes are verified, and Flavian produces his statement.
The Eutychians procure the condemnation of Ibas of Edessa. Theodosius summons the abbot Barsumas to represent the abbots of the East at Ephesus, and tells Dioscorus that Barsumas is to be allowed to sit and vote.
Leo promises Flavian his support. August The Latrocinium. The Council meets, charged by Theodosius to put an end to Nestorianism and the trouble stirred up by Flavian. Dioscorus presides. Flavian and Eusebius are condemned, a protest being met by Dioscorus calling in the Counts and the soldiery, and obtaining the verdict by military compulsion , , , Dioscorus sends in his report to Theodosius.
Session II, a fortnight later. September While a Synod is sitting on other matters in Rome, letters are received from Theodoret and Eusebius protesting against the Ephesian decisions, and Hilary brings his account of the Council. He also writes to various Eastern bishops, bidding them stand fast.
Theodosius confirms all that was done at Ephesus, and informs the West that all is well in the East. II and his own Tome. There is no response. Theodosius dies from a fall from his horse He is succeeded by his sister, Pulcheria, who puts Chrysaphius to death and marries the senator Marcian. Theodoret and others are recalled from exile, and many of the bishops who supported Dioscorus at Ephesus explain that they did so under compulsion.
Leo says the trouble is due to Dioscorus and Juvenal of Jerusalem, and can easily be settled without a Council, which would be difficult to arrange owing to the invasion of the Huns. Leo appoints legates. Bishops assemble at Nicaea. Eutyches excommunicates Leo. Marcian cannot go so far as Nicaea for fear of Huns in Illyricum, and orders the bishops to move to Chalcedon.
Strong measures are taken to exclude monks and laymen, and to keep order. October 8 Session I. Dioscorus is treated as defendant and accused by Eusebius of Dorylaeum. Theodoret is admitted as a bishop. The Minutes of the Latrocinium and of the Synod of Constantinople are read. October 13 Session III.
Dioscorus is formally deprived of his episcopal dignity Cp. October 22 Session V. The difference of the natures is in no way denied by reason of their union; on the other hand the peculiarity of each nature is preserved, and both concur in one Prosopon and one Hypostasis. The Argument of The Bazaar. Although the one shades off into the other, as the doctrinal issues are called to his mind by the memory of the wrongs he has suffered, and vice versa, yet on the whole three sections of The Bazaar may be distinguished as historical sections 27 in contrast to the remainder of the book which is mainly occupied with theological discussion.
His argument is twofold. He claims to show, first, that his own condemnation at Ephesus was unjust, and secondly, that the vindication of Flavian, who had suffered from the same causes and for the same faith as xxx himself, was the vindication of all that he had stood for.
To this end he gives a detailed account of the two Ephesian Councils of and , showing how at the first Cyril by violence and bribery won imperial and episcopal assent to a verdict which was no genuine verdict of a council constitutionally assembled, while at the second Flavian had suffered in similar fashion at the hands of Dioscorus.
But there was this difference. The injustice done to Flavian had been recognized by the Church and redressed, while that done to himself had not. So he claims that he never had a fair hearing, but was condemned untried for defending the faith which was ultimately accepted by the Church.
The Bazaar of Heracleides
He was living as a priest and monk in the monastery of Euprepius near the walls, and he gained a reputation for his sermons that led to his enthronement by Theodosius II , as Patriarch of Constantinople, following the death of Sisinnius I. Nestorian controversy[ edit ] Shortly after his arrival in Constantinople, Nestorius became involved in the disputes of two theological factions, which differed in their Christology. The teaching of all churches that accept the Council of Ephesus is that in the Incarnate Christ is a single hypostasis, God and man at once. It is not clear whether Nestorius actually taught that. Eusebius , a layman who later became the bishop of the neighbouring Dorylaeum, was the first to accuse Nestorius of heresy  but the most forceful opponent of Nestorius was Patriarch Cyril of Alexandria.
The Bazaar Of Heracleides