It comprises an introduction and ninety-two ninety-four in the translation of E. Dhabhar, p. The only extant date for his life is Y. West, p.
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NOTES: 1. He calls himself pontiff and director of the priests of Pars and Kerman in A. I and II. The reading of the name of his father, Yudan-Yim Pers. Through the name and power and assistance of the creator Ohrmazd and all good beings, all the heavenly and earthly angels, and every creature and creation that Ohrmazd set going for his own angels and all pertaining to the celestial spheres.
To those of the good religion, who are these inquirers owing to devout force of demeanor and strength of character, the type of wisdom and standard of ability — and of whom, moreover, the questions, seeking wisdom, contemplating good works, and investigating religion, are specified the blessing and reply of Manuschihar, son of Yudan-Yim, are these: — 2.
That is, forasmuch as with full affection, great dignity, and grandeur you have blessed me in this inquiring epistle,1 so much as you have blessed, and just as you have blessed, with full measure and perfect profusion, may it happen fully likewise unto you, in the first place, and to your connections, separately for yourselves and dependents; may it come upon you for a long period, and may it be connected with a happy end.
Regarding this epistle, nothing further is known that can be gathered from the text of this reply to it, which gives the substance of the questions it contained. This disciple appears to have been previously sent by Manuschihar to the community he is addressing, most probably to serve as their high-priest. Another name for Garothman, the highest heaven, or dwelling of Ohrmazd see Sls.
VI, 3, 4. That is, when this transitory world is purified and made permanent, so as to form a part of heaven, which is expected to take place at the resurrection.
The modern MSS. That which you ordered to write about the way of knowing and understanding not being for any one else but for your servant, was owing to your affection, and for the sake of kind regard; but on account of the importance of truth it is more expressly to be regarded as being proper to write also to other spiritual8 men, as to the learning which is more fully studied by them.
See note 8 above. The desires expressed, and the good wishes as to what is mine and has happened to me, which you ordered to write, are likewise marks of friendship and kind regard, and owing to them a like measure of friendship and kind regard becomes your10 own.
All MSS. That is more important on account of your well-expressed questions and boldness about ambiguous answers, and your ardent desire for the setting aside of time; for the setting aside, or not beginning, of a reply is implied.
As to a reply at a period of leisure time, the occurrence of the time appointed is manifested in everything, apart even from the kind regards of friendship, and the collection of information whereby, owing to my little leisure, it is declared unto you. The fourth month of the Parsee year, which corresponded to July-August in the time of Manuschihar.
That is, candidates for the priesthood and young priests. The sixth month of the Parsee year, which then corresponded to September-October. Afterwards, moreover, about the sayings of that high-priest whose custom is otherwise there is no difference of opinion expressed;21 and if there be any one for whose opinion I have acquired perfect reverence, a priestly man acquainted with the religion, who understands and who manages intelligently, by holding in reverence the ancient treatises and truth, and the sayings of the high-priests, whatever of his is to the purpose, as regards the reply, this also is written as successful illustration.
Meaning, apparently, that he does not propose to mention the opinions of others unless he approves of them. The MSS. That is, revelation is declared by the exposition.
The true Mazda-worshipping religion in all ages, both before and after the time of Zartosht see Sls. Owing to the copying. First you ask thus: Why is a righteous man created better than the stars and moon and sun and fire of Ohrmazd, and is called in revelation greater and better than the spiritual creation, and also than that which is worldly?
Justice is the one good proficiency over the creatures, the means of wisdom are great, and praise bestowed is the most effectual performance  of what is desirable kamishn-karih. For all three are mutually connected together; since the manifestation of justice is through wisdom, and its advantage is the performance of what is desirable for the creator; wisdom is the performance of what is desirable for the requirements of the creator, and its weapon zeno is justice; and the desire of the creator, which is progress, is in wisdom with justice.
All three are great among the creatures, and their lodgment in the superior beings and righteous men is spiritual, in the spirit which is the pure guardian angel [farohar], in the understanding for encountering, averting, smiting, and prostrating khvapak the fiend, in the army of angels, and in the sovereignty of the far-seeing dur-venako spirit, Ohrmazd; and, materially, in the worldly equipment and mutual connection of body and life.
And their appliances are the wisdom and worldly efficacy of treatises on the wise adoption of good thoughts, good words, and good deeds, and the relinquishment and discontinuance of evil thoughts, evil words, and evil deeds. And their acquirer is the worldly ruler who is providing for Ohrmazd, and approving and stimulating the pure religion, a praiser of the good and pure creator, and a director of persistence in destruction of the fiend.
And in the promulgation rubako-dahishnih of the good and religious liturgy mansar , the coming of the good cause of the resurrection, and the production of the renovation of the universe [Frashegird] are his cooperation and his own thanksgiving; and over the creatures of this prior world he is a guardian, defender, and manager.
And such rulers are great and pre-eminent; yet every man is not for that greatness, but it is mentioned as to superior beings and concerning righteous men, in whom it has arisen, and the best are the three who are the beginning, middle, and end of the creation. One is the pure man, Gayomard, who was its first rational praiser; he in whose keeping was the whole creation of the sacred beings, from its beginning and immaturity unto the final completion of the worldly creatures, over which was the exercise of goodness of his well-destined progeny, such as Hooshang, Takhmorup, Yim [Jamshed], and Faridoon, such as the apostles of the religion, like Zartosht, Ushedar, and Ushedarmah, and the producers of the renovation of the universe, like Saoshant, Roshanp-chashm, and Khur-chashm.
The approver of the enterprises rubak-dahishniha of cooperators, the purely-praising and just worshipper of the sacred beings through the strength of the spirit, the disabler of the worldly activity of the fiend as regards worldly bodies, and the one of pure religion — which is his charge spor , the revelation of the place of the beneficent spirit and of the destruction of the depravity of the evil spirit, the subjugation khvapishno of the fiend, the completion of the triumph of the creator, and the unlimited progress of the creatures — is the upholder of Mazda-worship.
And likewise through the goodness of Gayomard, which is the begetting of Zartosht, he is also just; likewise through the goodness of Saoshant, by which he is the progeny of Zartosht, he is also progressive in every good thought, good word, and good deed, more than the creatures which are produced with a hope of the religion, and equally thankful.
And one is the producer of bodies, the renovator Frashegar Saoshant, who is the putter down, with complete subjugation from the world, of the glorification of fiends and demons, and of the contention with angels in apostasy and heterodoxy of various kinds and unatoned for; and the completer of the renovation [Frashegird] through the full continuance of the glorification of the angels, and the perfect continuance of the pure religion.
And through that excellent, unblemished, brotherly work such a ruler may be seen above the sun with swift horses, the primeval luminaries, and all removal of darkness, the advance of illumination which is the display tojishno of the days and nights of the world. Regarding the same completion of the renovation of the universe it is said in the revelation of the Mazda-worshippers, that this great light is the vesture of the like righteous men. The second is that which you ask thus: For what purpose is a righteous man created for the world, and what manner is it necessary for him to exist in the world?
The reply is this, that the creator created the creatures for progress, which is his wish; and it is necessary for us to promote whatever is his wish, so that we may obtain whatever is our wish. And, since that persistent creator is powerful, whatever is our wish, and so far as we remain very faithful, such is as it were deserving of his wish, which is for our obtainment of whatever is our wish.
The miracle of these creatures was fully achieved avorido not unequally, and the gain guaftako also from the achievement of the same miracle is manifest; that is, achieving, and knowing that his achievement is with design chim and his desire is goodness, when the designed achievement, which is his creature, and also the goodness, which is his wish, are certain, and likewise, owing to the perfect ability which is due to the creator, the wish is achieved, it is manifest.
And, afterwards, it is decided by wisdom that he has achieved it, and the creatures, as perfected for the complete progress which is his wish, lapse into evil; and since when evil exists good becomes the subjugation of evil — for when evil is not complete, and after it is expressly said that his creatures are created for his own will, the progress due to subjugations of evil is on account of the good completed — it is similarly testified, in accordance with the will aforesaid, that it is achieved.
The creatures are for the performance of what is desirable for the creator, and the performance of what is desirable for the creator is necessary for two purposes, which are the practice of worship and contention.
For when the persistent one accomplished that most perfect and wholly miraculous creation of the lord, and his unwavering look — which was upon the coming on of the wandering evil spirit, the erratic, unobservant spirit — was unmingled with the sight of an eye, he made a spirit of observant temperament, which was the necessary soul, the virtuous lord of the body moving into the world.
And the animating life, the preserving guardian spirit, the acquiring intellect, the protecting understanding, the deciding wisdom, the demeanor which is itself a physician, the impelling strength, the eye for what is seen, the ear for what is heard, the nose for what is smelt, the mouth for recognizing flavor, the body for approaching the assembly pidram of the righteous, the heart for thinking, the tongue for speaking; the hand for working, the foot for walking, these which make life comfortable, these which are developments in creating, these which are to join the body, these which are to be considered perfected, are urged on by him continuously, and the means of industry of the original body are arranged advisedly.
And by proper regulation, and the recompense of good thoughts, good words, and good deeds, he announced and adorned conspicuous, patient, and virtuous conduct; and that procurer of the indispensable did not forget to keep men in his own true service and proper bounds, the supreme sovereignty of the creator.
And man became a pure glorifier and pure praiser of that all-good friend, through the progress which is his wish. Because pure friendship is owing to sure meditation on every virtue, and from its existence no harm whatever arose, pure glorifying is owing to glorifying every goodness, and from its existence no vileness whatever arose; and pure praising is owing to all prosperity, and from its existence no distress whatever arose. And pronouncing the benedictions he is steadfast in the same pure friendship, just glorifying, and expressive praising, which are performed even as though Vohuman were kept lodging in the thoughts, Srosh in the words, and Ard in the actions.
That, moreover, which is owing to the lodgment of Vohuman in the thoughts is virtuously rushing unto true propitiation from the heart, and keeping selfishness away from the desires; the lodgment of Srosh in the words is owing to him who is intelligent being a true speaker, and him who is unintelligent being a listener to what is true and to the high-priests; and the lodgment of Ard in the actions is declared to be owing to promoting that which is known as goodness, and abstaining, from that which one does not know.
And these three benefits which have been recited are sent down farostako in two ways that the ancients have mentioned, which are that deliberately taken and that they should deliberately leave, whose means are wisdom and proper exertion. As the religious of the ancients have religiously said, that of him who keeps the goodness of Vohuman lodging in the thoughts the true way is then that of the good spirit.
The Mazda-worshipper understands the will of the creator in the true way, and grows and acquires by performing what is desirable for the creator, which obtains the benefit of the renovation. A more concise reply is this, that a righteous man is the creature by whom is accepted that occupation which is provided for him, and is fully watchful in the world as to his not being deceived by the rapacious fiend. And as a determiner, by wisdom, of the will of the creator — one who is himself a propitiator and understander, and a promoter of the understanding of goodness — and of whatever pertains to him the creator , he is a giver of heed thereto; and it is necessary for him to be thus, so that such greatness and goodness may also be his more securely in the spiritual existence.
The third question is that you ask thus: For what reason does this greatness of a righteous man exist? The reply is this, that it is for the performance of what is desirable for the creator by the Mazda-worshipper; because he strives unhesitatingly that the way for the performance of what is desirable for the creator may be the propitiation which is his desire, and that desired propitiation becomes perfect through sound wisdom.
The wisdom by which he understands about the desire of the heavenly angels is not appointed vakht , but is the true, pure religion which is knowledge of the spirits, the science of sciences, the teacher of the teaching of the angels, and the source of all knowledge.
And at the same time the religion of me who created him is his desire, and it is the obtainment of a ruler which is to be changed by the well-organized renovation of the universe. As through wisdom is created the world of righteousness, through wisdom is subjugated every evil, and through wisdom is perfected every good; and the best wisdom is the pure religion whose progress is that achieved by the upholders of religion, the greatness of the best men of the righteous, in whose destiny it is, such as that which was shown about Gayomard, Zartosht, and Soshans.
The fourth question is that which you ask thus: Of this destruction zadam and terror which ever happen to us from the retribution of the period, and are a cause of the other evils and defects of the good religion, what kind of opinion exists? And is there a good opinion of us among the spirits, or not? The reply is this, that it is said in the revelation of the Mazda-worshippers that the impediments ras-bandih , through which there is vexation in righteousness, are because its doctrine is this, that, regarding the difficulty, anxiety, and discomfort which occur through good works set going, it is not desirable to account them as much difficulty, trouble, and discomfort.
Whereas it is not desirable to account them as anxiety and difficulty, it is then declared by it thereof, that, as its recompense, so much comfort and pleasure will come to the soul, as that no one is to think of that difficulty and discomfort which came upon him through so many such good works, because he is steadfast to maintain the good religion, and utters thanksgivings va stayedo.
And as regards the discomfort, which the same good religion of ours has had, it comes on from the opponents of the religion. Through the coming of religion we have full enjoyment bara gukarem , and owing to religion, unlike bondsmen aburdoganvar , we do not become changeable among the angels; our spiritual life ahvoih of praise then arrives in readiness, and owing to the angels there are joyous salutation, spiritual life, and glory for the soul.
The fifth question is that you ask thus: Why does evil always happen more to the good than to the bad? The reply is this, that not at every time and every place, and not to all the good, does evil happen more — for the spiritual welfare of the good is certainly more — but in the world it is very much more manifest.
And the reasons for it are many; one which is conclusive is even this, that the modes and causes of its occurrence are more; for the occurrence of evil is more particularly appointed vakhto by two modes, one by the demons, the appointers of evil, and one by the vile, the doers of evil; even to the vileness of creation and the vile they cause vexation.
Moreover, incalculable is the evil which happens to the vile from the demons, and that to the good from the demons and also from the vile, and the mode of its occurrence is in the same way without a demon. This, too, is more particularly such as the ancients have said, that the labor and trouble of the good are much more in the world, and their reward and recompense are more certain in the spiritual existence; and the comfort and pleasure of the vile are more in the world, and their pain and punishment in the spiritual existence are more severe.
And this, too, is the case, that the good, through fear of the pain and punishment of hell, should forsake the comfort and ease in the world, and should not think, speak, or do anything improper whatever.
And through hope for the comfort and pleasure in heaven they should accept willingly, for the neck, much trouble and fear in the practice of virtue in thought, word, and deed. The vile, through provision with temporary enjoyment — even that enjoyment of improprieties for which eventually there is hell — then enjoy themselves therein temporarily, and lustfully on account of selfishness; those various actions also, through which there would be a way to heaven, they do not trouble themselves with.
And in this way, in the world, the comfort and pleasure of the vile are more, and the anxiety, vexation, despondency, and distress of the good have become more; the reason is revealed by the stars. The sixth question is that which you ask thus: Why are we men produced for the world, and what is it necessary for us to do therein? The reply is this, that even in the reply to an accompanying question it is written that the creatures are achieved for justice and the performance of what is desirable for the creator; and to prepare thoroughly well that which is unlimited and the virtuous progress of the creatures, whose distress is like fear, there is the unparalleled abradarvato renovation of the universe.
And it is necessary for us to become so in the world as that the supreme sovereignty of the creator may be kept more friendly to us, its own true servants. The way to that true service is known through wisdom, is believed vavari-aito through truth, and is utilized through goodness; and the path of excellence more particularly leads to it. The seventh question is that you ask thus: When a man is passing away, and after the occurrence of his passing away, how does the good work then go to him and assist him, which any others may do for him who has gone out from the world, on the third night in the dawn, at which he goes out to the balance?
And is its greatness such as though it be done by his own hand, or otherwise? The reply is this: When any others do a good work for him who has passed away, after the passing away, and if he who has passed away did not order that good work in his lifetime, and did not bequeath it, nor was its originator, and it was not even his by design dado , then it does not go and does not reach him out at the balance.
Even at the time for being proceeded with, when that good work does not assist it is not appropriated, for that which is appropriated as the design of some one is appropriated by acceptance from some one; when it is not his by design it is then not accepted as his. If he who has passed away did not order that good work, and did not even bequeath it, but was consenting to it by design, that which shall be done in his lifetime then reaches out in the three nights satuih for the aggrandizement of his position; but that which shall be done after his passing away is not in the account of the three nights and the balance, but reaches out, at the time the good work is proceeded with, for the enjoyment of the soul.
Any good work whatever which is proceeded with is clearly a like good work as regards those who account for it as with him who is the doer of it; also in the account of his soul the good work is as much with him who did it, but the soul of him by whom the good work is done by his own hand, is handsomer and stronger than of him by whom it is ordered.
The reply is this, that they are very different, one from the other; for that which he orders out of his own wealth is more effectual than that which others may do for him without order.
And among the kinds of good work, that is more effectual which one practices himself and with his own toil; then that which one sets going out of whatever is his own by his own order, regarding which he afterwards bequeaths and orders out of his own property and it comes into progress; and, lastly, that which others may do for him.
Since thus his own and that which is his by design, when any one manages for him and in his lifetime, aggrandize his position then, and his soul is preserved, when he manages for him thereafter the enjoyment then reaches unto his soul. When not consenting as to the good work, and it is not his by design, even though others may do it for him it does not then come into his possession.
The ninth question is that which you ask thus: How much does the growth of his good works increase, from the time when the good works are done, so long as he is living? The reply is this, that from the time when a good work comes into progress its growth remains on the increase so long as he is living; moreover, when he is distressed by that good work, while the increase does not desist from increase, it grows just as a child becomes enlarged in the womb of a mother.
The tenth question is that which you ask thus: Does the growth which increases become as commendable in the fourth night as the original good work in his possession, or does it become otherwise?
The reply is this, that it is otherwise; for the original good work stands up opposing sin, and the growing good work stands up opposed to the growth of sin. The eleventh question is that you ask thus: Does the growth of a good work eradicate sin just like the original good work, or not?
Fenritilar dadsstan Several small passages such as the fol- gious issues, and traditions of Zoroastrianism. The wisdom by which he understands about the desire of the heavenly angels is not appointed vakhtbut is the true, pure religion which is knowledge of the spirits, the science of sciences, the teacher of the teaching of the angels, and the source of all knowledge. Member feedback about Iran word: The dispersers astardo-garan completely disperse from it; they are appointed and produced, dsnig production not worthy, for its defilement of those purified and animals is contaminating, deig contact again with addestan. In several places, the author simply refers to facsimile, or in critical editions, Her family moved to Tehran early in her life, and in addition to the formal schooling, she obtained a solid understanding of Arabic and classical Persian literature from her father.
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NOTES: 1. He calls himself pontiff and director of the priests of Pars and Kerman in A. I and II. The reading of the name of his father, Yudan-Yim Pers. Through the name and power and assistance of the creator Ohrmazd and all good beings, all the heavenly and earthly angels, and every creature and creation that Ohrmazd set going for his own angels and all pertaining to the celestial spheres. To those of the good religion, who are these inquirers owing to devout force of demeanor and strength of character, the type of wisdom and standard of ability — and of whom, moreover, the questions, seeking wisdom, contemplating good works, and investigating religion, are specified the blessing and reply of Manuschihar, son of Yudan-Yim, are these: — 2.