Date and context[ edit ] Father of linguistics The history of linguistics begins not with Plato or Aristotle, but with the Indian grammarian Panini. This means Panini lived in Salatura of ancient Gandhara , which likely was near Lahor , a town at the junction of Indus and Kabul rivers, [48] which falls in the Swabi District of modern Pakistan. He must, therefore, have been technically a Persian subject but his work shows no awareness of the Persian language. It complements the Vedic ancillary sciences such as the Niruktas , Nighantus , and Shiksha. It is highly systematised and technical. Inherent in its approach are the concepts of the phoneme , the morpheme and the root.

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Most scholarship suggests a 4th-century BC floruit corresponding to the Pushkalavati site in Gandhara , contemporary to the Nanda Dynasty ruling the Gangetic plain, but a 5th or even late 6th century BC date cannot be ruled out with certainty.

He notes a few special rules, marked chandasi "in the hymns" to account for forms in the Vedic scriptures that had fallen out of use in the spoken language of his time. These indicate that Vedic Sanskrit was already archaic, but still a comprehensible dialect. New deities referred to in his work include Vasudeva 4. The concept of dharma is attested in his example sentence 4.

Taittiriya Upanishad 1. It is highly systematised and technical. Inherent in its approach are the concepts of the phoneme , the morpheme and the root. His rules have a reputation for perfection [15] — that is, they are claimed to describe Sanskrit morphology fully, without any redundancy. His sophisticated logical rules and technique have been widely influential in ancient and modern linguistics.

The Ashtadhyayi was not the first description of Sanskrit grammar, but it surpassed its predecessor on such a monumental scale that all earlier works are now lost except for the extent to which they are mentioned by Panini. In the Ashtadhyayi, language is observed in a manner that has no parallel among Greek or Latin grammarians.

This metalanguage is organised according to a series of meta-rules, some of which are explicitly stated while others can be deduced. The two fundamental principles on which the metalanguage is based are non-redundancy, or the principle of economy, and the necessity of all the rules in the Ashtadhyayi. Rules The first two sutras are as follows: 1. List of IT markers its or anubandhas are defined in P. As these anubandhas are metalinguistic markers and not pronounced in the final derived form, pada word , they are elided by P.

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