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Further information: Castro culture Main language areas, peoples and tribes in Iberian Peninsula c. It is associated with the Celtic tribal groups the Gallaecians and the Astures. The population predominantly practiced transhumant cattle-herding, protected by a warrior elite, similar to those in other areas of Atlantic Europe , centered in the hill-forts, locally termed castros, that controlled small grazing territories.
Archaeological finds identify the culture as continuous with the culture reported by Classical writers from the late 3rd century onwards Almagro-Gorbea and Lorrio. The ethnic map of Celtiberia was highly localized however, composed of different tribes and nations from the 3rd century centered upon fortified oppida and representing a wide-ranging degree of local assimilation with the autochthonous cultures in a mixed Celtic and Iberian stock.
Territory of the Celtiberi with possible location of tribes Bronze Celtiberian fibula representing a warrior 3rd—2nd century BC The cultural stronghold of Celtiberians was the northern area of the central meseta in the upper valleys of the Tagus and Douro east to the Iberus Ebro river, in the modern provinces of Soria , Guadalajara , Zaragoza and Teruel. There, when Greek and Roman geographers and historians encountered them, the established Celtiberians were controlled by a military aristocracy that had become a hereditary elite.
The dominant tribe were the Arevaci , who dominated their neighbors from powerful strongholds at Okilis Medinaceli and who rallied the long Celtiberian resistance to Rome. Excavations at the Celtiberian strongholds Kontebakom-Bel Botorrita , Sekaisa Segeda , Tiermes  complement the grave goods found in Celtiberian cemeteries, where aristocratic tombs of the 6th to 5th centuries BC give way to warrior tombs with a tendency from the 3rd century BC for weapons to disappear from grave goods, either indicating an increased urgency for their distribution among living fighters or, as Almagro-Gorbea and Lorrio think, the increased urbanization of Celtiberian society.
Many late Celtiberian oppida are still occupied by modern towns, inhibiting archaeology. Metalwork stands out in Celtiberian archaeological finds, partly from its indestructible nature, emphasizing Celtiberian articles of warlike uses, horse trappings and prestige weapons. The two-edged sword adopted by the Romans was previously in use among the Celtiberians, and Latin lancea, a thrown spear, was a Hispanic word, according to Varro.
Celtiberian culture was increasingly influenced by Rome in the two final centuries BC. From the 3rd century, the clan was superseded as the basic Celtiberian political unit by the oppidum , a fortified organized city with a defined territory that included the castros as subsidiary settlements. These civitates as the Roman historians called them, could make and break alliances, as surviving inscribed hospitality pacts attest, and minted coinage.
The old clan structures lasted in the formation of the Celtiberian armies, organized along clan-structure lines, with consequent losses of strategic and tactical control. Celtiberian biglobular daggers Celtiberian antennas swords The Celtiberians were the most influential ethnic group in Iberia when the Mediterranean powers Carthage and Rome started their conquests.
Under Scipio Africanus , the Romans were able to secure alliances and change the allegiances of many Celtiberian tribes, using these allied warriors against the Carthaginian forces and allies in Spain. After the conflict, Rome took possession of the Punic empire in Spain, and some Celtiberians soon challenged the new dominant power that loomed in the borders of its territory. Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus spent the years to pacifying the Celtiberians. Gracchus boasted of destroying over Celtiberian settlements.
The following year, it refused to pay tribute or provide a military contingent to Rome but formed instead a confederacy with neighboring towns and began the construction of a defensive wall. But the consul was late in arriving and ambushed soon after, with 6, Romans slain. A siege of Numantia several days later, where the Segedans had taken refuge, was no more successful. Three elephants were brought up against the town walls but became frightened and turned on the Romans, who retreated in confusion.
There were other setbacks, and the hapless Nobilior was obliged to withdraw to camp, where more men suffered frostbite and died of the winter cold. Nobilior lost over 10, men in his campaign.
Engraving of the Siege of Numantia Nearby fields were laid waste and what was not used burned. The stronghold of Numantia then was circumvallated with a ditch and palisade, behind which was a wall ten feet high. Towers were placed every hundred feet and mounted with catapults and ballistae.
To blockade the nearby river, logs were placed in the water, moored by ropes on the shore. Knives and spear heads were embedded in the wood, which rotated in the strong current.
Allied tribes were ordered to send reinforcements. Even Jugurtha , who later would revolt from Rome, himself, was sent from Numidia with twelve war elephants. The Roman forces now numbered 60, men and were arrayed around the besieged town in seven camps. The Numantines, "ready though they were to die, no opportunity was given them of fighting".
Nor could there be any help from neighboring towns. Eventually, as their hunger increased, envoys were sent to Scipio, asking if they would be treated with moderation if they surrendered, pleading that they had fought for their women and children, and the freedom of their country. But Scipio would accept only deditio. Hearing this demand for absolute submission, the Numantines, "who were previously savage in temper because of their absolute freedom and quite unaccustomed to obey the orders of others, and were now wilder than ever and beside themselves by reason of their hardships," slew their own ambassadors.
After eight months, the starving population was reduced to cannibalism and, filthy and foul smelling, compelled to surrender. But, "such was the love of liberty and of valour which existed in this small barbarian town," relates Appian , that many chose to kill themselves rather than capitulate. Families poisoned themselves, weapons were burned, and the beleaguered town set ablaze. There had been only about 8, fighting men when the war began; half that number survived to garrison Numantia.
The others were sold as slaves and the town razed to the ground, the territory divided among its neighbors. Botorrita plaque : one of four bronze plates with inscriptions. After Numantia was finally taken and destroyed, Roman cultural influences increased; this is the period of the earliest Botorrita inscribed plaque ; later plaques, significantly, are inscribed in Latin.
The Sertorian War 80—72 BC marked the last formal resistance of the Celtiberian cities to Roman domination, which submerged the Celtiberian culture. The Celtiberian presence remains on the map of Spain in hundreds of Celtic place-names. The archaeological recovery of Celtiberian culture commenced with the excavations of Numantia , published between and
Further information: Castro culture Main language areas, peoples and tribes in Iberian Peninsula c. It is associated with the Celtic tribal groups the Gallaecians and the Astures. The population predominantly practiced transhumant cattle-herding, protected by a warrior elite, similar to those in other areas of Atlantic Europe , centered in the hill-forts, locally termed castros, that controlled small grazing territories. Archaeological finds identify the culture as continuous with the culture reported by Classical writers from the late 3rd century onwards Almagro-Gorbea and Lorrio.
LOS CELTIBEROS LORRIO PDF
A partir del I milenio a. Su asentamiento, durante el I milenio a. Numancia dista unos ochocientos estadios de Cesaraugusta que, como hemos dicho, se alza en la orilla del Ebro. Lorrio, se vinculan los enterramientos de la margen derecha del alto Duero, donde las tumbas con panoplia militar se multiplican y que permiten atestiguar una sociedad con una clase militar mayoritaria.
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