The participation of these Churches in the Ecumenical Movement, the conversations presently being held between their representatives and those of the Orthodox Church for eventual reunion, and the widespread interest in ecumenism, will assure to this book a well-deserved success. Professor A. This explains the fact that Alexandrian Christianity receives quite a preferential treatment in his book pp. But the book which is beautifully illustrated will not be read as a handbook of Church history but for its precious description of the remarkable survival of the Eastern communities throughout the Middle Ages up to the modern times. In this respect it offers to the student a very competent collection of otherwise unavailable information. Translated by John C.

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Jerome claims to have seen a gospel in Aramaic that contained all the quotations he assigns to it, but it can be demonstrated that some of them could never have existed in a Semitic language. His claim to have produced all the translations himself is also suspect, as many are found in earlier scholars such as Origen and Eusebius. Jerome appears to have assigned these quotations to the Gospel of the Hebrews , but it appears more likely that there were at least two and probably three ancient Jewish-Christian gospels , only one of them in a Semitic language.

Who translated it after that in Greek is not sufficiently ascertained. Moreover, the Hebrew itself is preserved to this day in the library at Caesarea, which the martyr Pamphilus so diligently collected. I also was allowed by the Nazarenes who use this volume in the Syrian city of Beroea to copy it. It probably originated in a Jewish-Christian community in Roman Syria towards the end of the first century AD, [8] and there is little doubt among modern scholars that it was composed in Koine Greek , the daily language of the time [9] [although this is disputed; see, for example, Carmignac, "Birth of the Synoptics", and Tresmontant, "The Hebrew Christ", both of whom postulate early Hebrew gospels.

The precise nature of the relationship is the synoptic problem. The most widely held solution to the problem today is the two-source theory , which holds that Mark, plus another, hypothetical source, Q , were used by Matthew and Luke. But while this theory has widespread support, there is a notable minority view that Mark was written last using Matthew and Luke the two-gospel hypothesis.

Still other scholars accept Markan priority , but argue that Q never existed, and that Luke used Matthew as a source as well as Mark the Farrer hypothesis. A further, and very minority, theory is that there was a single gospel written in Hebrew or Aramaic. Today, this hypothesis is held to be discredited by most experts. As outlined subsequently, this was always a minority view, but in former times occasionally rather influential, and advanced by some eminent scholars: Early modern period[ edit ] Richard Simon of Normandy in [13] asserted that an Aramaic or Hebrew Gospel of Matthew, lay behind the Nazarene Gospel, and was the Proto-Gospel.

Griesbach [14] treated this as the first of three source theories as solutions to the synoptic problem , following 1 the traditional Augustinian utilization hypothesis , as 2 the original gospel hypothesis or proto-gospel hypothesis , 3 the fragment hypothesis Koppe ; [15] and 4 the oral gospel hypothesis or tradition hypothesis Herder In Gotthold Ephraim Lessing in Wolfenbuttel identified the Edwards , in The Hebrew Gospel and the development of the synoptic tradition , suggested that a lost Hebrew Ur-Matthew is the common source of both the Jewish-Christian Gospels and the unique L source material material not sourced from Mark or Q in the Gospel of Luke.

The exact identification of which Jewish Gospel is which in the references of Jerome, Origen and Epiphanius, and whether each church father had one or more Jewish Gospels in mind, is an ongoing subject of scholarly debate.

Critical scholars had long moved on from the hypotheses of Eichhorn, Schleiermacher and K. Lachmann Traditional Lutheran commentator Richard Lenski wrote regarding the "hypothesis of an original Hebrew Matthew" that "whatever Matthew wrote in Hebrew was so ephemeral that it disappeared completely at a date so early that even the earliest fathers never obtained sight of the writing".

Schneemelcher cites several early fathers as seeing Hebrew Matthew including Clement of Alexandria Stromata 2. II,12; in Jer. XV,4; in MT. That the latter was at hand in the library in Caesareas is not to be disputed; it is at any rate likely on the ground of the citations of Eusebius in his Theophany. It will likewise be correct that the Nazaraeans used such an Aramaic gospel, since Epiphanius also testifies to this.

That the Aramaic gospel, evidence of which is given by Hegesippus and Eusebius, is identical with the Gospel of the Nazaraeans, is not indeed absolutely certain, but perfectly possible, even very probable….

Wrenn, trans. He expected many difficulties but unexpectedly discovered that the translation was not only easy, but seemed to point to Greek Mark as a translation from a Hebrew or Aramaic original.

Among the nine types of Semitisms identified among the three Synoptics, Semitisms of Transmission are probably the strongest evidence for at least Mark and possibly Matthew as direct translations from a Hebrew original text. He had intended to produce a comprehensive volume but passed away before this work could be produced.


Faculty of Theology, Catholic University of Leuven

Cardinal Mercier The Faculty of Theology of the Catholic University of Mechlin then called Catholic University of Leuven received primarily those students having already completed two years of philosophy and four years of theology as a part of their priestly education. A number of introductory courses were taught in the years — These courses were reorganized in as a Schola Minor in association with the American College in Leuven. From the very beginning Canon Law was taught by the Theological Faculty until both programs separated in accordance with the Apostolic Constitution Deus scientiarum Dominus in There was a revived preference for a positive and historically oriented theology in the form of historical-critical research at the end of the nineteenth century. Along with the two previously mentioned professors, Professor Paulin Ladeuze joined the faculty as a specialist in the critical study of the New Testament. Thomas Aquinas in


Cerfaux, Lucien



Lucien Cerfaux



Hebrew Gospel hypothesis


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