MACROPTILIUM LATHYROIDES PDF

Macroptilium lathyroides L. Synonyms Basionym: Phaseolus lathyroides L. Leguminosae subfamily: Faboideae tribe: Phaseoleae subtribe: Phaseolinae. Stems sparsely to densely appressed pubescent. Inflorescence a semi- erect , spicate raceme , about 15 cm long borne on axillary peduncles to about 30 cm long.

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Urban is an erect branching legume up to 0. It is usually annual but it is occasionally biennal or a short-lived perennial. In shaded conditions, phasey bean may trail or twin, with vines reaching 1. With maturity, the stems become woody at their base. Phasey bean leaves are trifoliate with cm long and The inflorescences are cm cm long racemes borne on 30 cm long peduncles, and bear red to red-purple occasionally white or pink papillionate flowers, mm in diameter. The fruits are pubescent, linear, dehiscent pods, 5.

Phasey bean and its more popular relative siratro Macroptilium atropurpureum DC. Phasey bean is mainly used as a pioneer forage that rapidly provides feed in pastures. It can also be cut for hay or silage though it may drop its leaves during drying and handling.

As an N-fixing legume, phasey bean is used for green manure and is a valuable cover crop in rotations FAO, ; Cook et al. Distribution Phasey bean originated from tropical America Central America, the Caribbean Islands, South America and is naturalized in the tropics and subtropics.

It is mainly found in wet places along roadsides, on waste lands, in open fields, pastures, and in open situations along streams and rivers Cook et al. It sheds its leaves under frost, but can survive light frost: survival at It can grow where annual rainfall ranges from mm to mm. In drier places, it may grow in drainage lines or wet depressions. Its resistance to severe drought is due to its free-seeding ability.

Phasey bean is tolerant to waterlogging and flooding as its nodulated roots can benefit from water excess Whiteman et al. It does well on a wide range of soils from well to poorly drained and deep-sandy to heavy-clayey soils Odeyinka et al. Optimum soil pH ranges from acidic to alkaline Saline soils are fairly tolerated but excess Mn and Al should be alleviated with an application of lime FAO, ; Cook et al. Forage management Phasey bean is generally considered to be an annual plant.

It does not usually regenerate in pastures Bryan et al. Phasey bean seeds and establishes readily in well-prepared seed-beds provided there is not too much competition FAO, ; Cook et al.

It grows vigorously in the warm moist summer period. In the year of sowing, it had one of the highest legume yields observed in Australia and Guinea Jones, ; Barnes, Dry matter yield may range from 0.

Associations Phasey bean can grow in association with summer grasses to provide early summer grazing. Companion species include lespedeza species Kummerowia stipulacea, Kummerowia striata, Lespedeza cuneata , Chloris gayana , Dichanthium aristatum, several Paspalum species Paspalum dilatatum and Paspalum plicatulum and Para grass Brachiaria mutica.

Association with Guinea grass Megathyrsus maximus , broadleaf setaria Setaria sphacelata var. Warm season legumes that are valuable companions include American vetch Aeschynomene americana , white clover Trifolium repens and Desmodium heterocarpon Cook et al.

Phasey bean may also be sown in wheat or maize fields Asongwed-Awa et al. In poorly drained soils or irrigated areas the seeds should be sown into the top of planting ridges FAO, For instance, in association with Para grass, phasey bean is sown on the tops of ridges and 2 to 3 months later the grass is sown in the ridges where irrigation water enters. Pasture Phasey bean should not be grazed heavily or continuously as this may hamper its viability. As a short-lived legume, Macroptilium lathyroides can help to establish grasses such as Desmodium heterocarpon which is persistent under grazing, but not easily established Aiken et al.

During the establishment period, phasey bean and Aeschynomene provided high quality forage, but contributed negligibly during the second year Aiken et al. Hay and silage Phasey bean makes good quality hay provided that it is cut and handled early enough to preserve a maximum of leaf material FAO, It also makes excellent silage in combination with Columbus grass Sorghum x almum or alone: it proved to have higher fermentation potential than Guinea grass Imura et al.

Environmental impact N-fixing legume, cover crop and biodiversity Phasey bean is an N-fixing legume that nodulates freely with native rhizobia, making seed inoculation unnecessary. Phasey bean is often cited as a potential cover crop, especially under flooded conditions Werner et al.

It can also be used in wildlife-food plantings to provide seeds for quail and forage for deer Newman et al. Nematode sensitivity Phasey bean hosts knot-root nematode and is very sensitive to them. This can become a problem in nematode control Rich et al.

Weed Phasey bean competes with weeds and is seldom referred to as a weed. However, its ability to twin may become a problem in citrus plantations Barnes et al. Nutritional aspects Nutritional attributes Information about the composition of phasey bean forage and seeds is scarce. Other factors influence the composition: flooding increases the amount of structural carbohydrates at the expense of protein content, while drought has the inverse effect Nagashiro et al.

Longer cutting intervals also had a depressive effect on leaf protein content Adjei et al. Potential constraints Forage No evidence of toxicity has been found in cattle or in horses Cook et al. Seeds Phasey bean seeds contain low levels of non-toxic lectin and moderate amounts of trypsin inhibitors Grant et al.

They do not require heat-treatment prior to use Grant et al. Ruminants Whole plant Fresh forage There is limited recent information on the nutritional value of phasey bean forage. Silage Phasey bean forage ensiled at 60 days regrowth exhibited a good fermentation pattern with a pH under 4.

Ensiling rice forage and phasey bean forage together improved the fermentation quality and the palatability of rice forage silages, which are lower for rice than for phasey bean Tobisa et al. Ensiling phasey bean forage with Napier grass Pennisetum purpureum improved the nutritive value compared to Napier grass alone Yunus et al. Acid detergent insoluble N increased with heat treatment and silage DM Tamaki et al.

Dry matter and N degradability decreased as silage DM increased Tamaki et al. This selective grazing is made possible by the greater accessibility of the upper layers of pasture, which are younger than the less accessible lower parts Nakanishi et al.

The seeds do not have any significant defaunating activity Odeyinka et al.

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phasey bean

Urban is an erect branching legume up to 0. It is usually annual but it is occasionally biennal or a short-lived perennial. In shaded conditions, phasey bean may trail or twin, with vines reaching 1. With maturity, the stems become woody at their base. Phasey bean leaves are trifoliate with cm long and The inflorescences are cm cm long racemes borne on 30 cm long peduncles, and bear red to red-purple occasionally white or pink papillionate flowers, mm in diameter. The fruits are pubescent, linear, dehiscent pods, 5.

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Macroptilium lathyroides – Wild Bushbean

Naturalised Distribution Widely naturalised in northern Australia. It is most common in north-eastern New South Wales, eastern Queensland and the northern parts of the Northern Territory. Also naturalised in the northern parts of Western Australia, in inland Queensland, and in some other parts of northern and central New South Wales. Notes Phasey bean Macroptilium lathyroides is regarded as an environmental weed in Queensland and the Northern Territory.

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